Watergate scandal The Watergate complex in Washington, D. Felt saw all the FBI's files on its investigation of the break-in there in He had been among the first to learn of the investigation, being informed the morning of June
First, the police continue to misapply the "no-crime" or "unfounding" criteria. Studies by Kelly et al. Rumney notes that some officers seem to "have fixed views and expectations about how genuine rape victims should react to their victimization".
He adds that "qualitative research also suggests that some officers continue to exhibit an unjustified scepticism of rape complainants, while others Research paper on the fbi such things as lack of evidence or complaint withdrawal as 'proof' of a false allegation". Rumney's second conclusion is that it is impossible to "discern with any degree of certainty the actual rate of false allegations" because many of the studies of false allegations have adopted unreliable or untested research methodologies.
He argues, for instance, that in addition to their small sample size, the studies by Maclean and Stewart used questionable criteria to judge an allegation to be false.
MacLean deemed reports "false" if, for instance, the victim did not appear "dishevelled" and Stewart, in one instance, considered a case disproved, stating that "it was totally impossible to have removed her extremely tight undergarments from her extremely large body against her will".
Lisak stated that many of the stats are misleading upon investigation and "when the sources of these estimates are examined carefully it is clear that only a fraction of the reports represent credible studies and that these credible studies indicate far less variability in false reporting rates.
Kanin of Purdue University investigated the incidences of false rape allegations made to the police in one small urban community in the Midwest United States population 70, between and He states that unlike in many larger jurisdictions, this police department had the resources to "seriously record and pursue to closure all rape complaints, regardless of their merits".
He further states each investigation "always involves a serious offer to polygraph the complainants and the suspects" and "the complainant must admit that no rape had occurred.
She is the sole agent who can say that the rape charge is false". After reviewing the police files, Kanin categorized the false accusations into three broad motivations: This categorization was supported by the details of complainant recantations and other documentation of their cases.
No polygraphs were used, the investigations were the sole responsibility of a ranking female officer, and a rape charge was only counted as false under complainant recantation.
In this sample, the motivations mentioned above were roughly evenly split between alibi and revenge, with only one case characterized as attention-seeking.
He states, "Kanin's article on false allegations is a provocative opinion piece, but it is not a scientific study of the issue of false reporting of rape. It certainly should never be used to assert a scientific foundation for the frequency of false allegations. The department classified reports as false which the complainant later said were false, but Lisak points out that Kanin's study did not scrutinize the police's processes or employ independent checkers to protect results from bias.
These procedures include the "serious offer", in this department, of polygraph testing of complainants, which is viewed as a tactic of intimidation that leads victims to avoid the justice process  and which, Lisak says, is "based on the misperception that a significant percentage of sexual assault reports are false".
The reliability of these findings may be somewhat bolstered by the fact that the police appeared to record the details and circumstances of the fabrications.
Rumney questions the reliability of Kanin's study stating that it "must be approached with caution". He argues that the study's most significant problem is Kanin's assumption "that police officers abided by departmental policy in only labeling as false those cases where the complainant admitted to fabrication.
He does not consider that actual police practice, as other studies have shown, might have departed from guidelines.
Incorrect assumptions about false rape allegations increases the likelihood that a person who reports rape will be blamed or disbelieved. As a result, the people commonly had a difficult time believing someone they know or like is a rapist, and this could contribute to the idea that the person who reported the rape is at fault.
False stories tend to be quick and straightforward with few details or complex interactions, and usually involve only vaginal intercourse. Some behaviors associated with lying by juries is actually typical of true rapes, including kissing or a previous relationship with the rapist.
True rape reports often include many details rarely seen in media or false rape reports, for example pseudo-intimate actions, detailed verbal interactions and an otherwise wide range of behaviors besides simply face-to-face vaginal intercourse.
Vogel concludes that the high focus on false allegations could contribute to the myth that rapes are rare and false reports are common, when the facts do not back up those perceptions.
Another report identified charging decisions involving allegations of false accusations of rape and an additional 11 false allegations of both domestic violence and rape between January and May and found of these cases, 35 were prosecuted based upon false accusations of rape.How to Format a Research Paper.
There are a number of sources you can turn to for research paper examples and, depending on your field of study, a plethora of potential high quality topics exist to pull your subject matter from. RL -- FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, Issues and Options for Congress.
the fbi essays The FBI or Federal Bureau of Investigation has been protecting the United States public for almost a hundred years.
Whether it be in the lawless 20's or the Post Watergate era the FBI was still ensuring domestic security. This paper will show how the FBI throughout history has.
Welcome to the Crimes Against Children Research Center Newly Released: The Complex Experience of Child Pornography Survivors. The qualitiative analysis identified three major themes which emerged from survivors' perspectives: Guilt and shame, their ongoing vulnerability and, suprisingly, an empowerment dimension the images sometimes brought because they confirmed their abuse testimony.
Below is an essay on "The FBI" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. A History of the FBI The FBI was created on July 26, as an unnamed agency with the transfer of under 50 agents from the Secret Service.
The free Criminology research paper (Fbi Agent essay) presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service. If you need fresh and competent research / writing on Criminology, use the professional writing service offered by .