Originally a northern word, it became general in English c. Meaning "act of running" is from early 14c.
The discovery of Peking man in made it evident that ancient humanlike creatures with an early Paleolithic culture had dwelled in China. Certain physical characteristics of Peking man are thought to be distinctive marks of the Mongoloid branch of the human race.
Skulls of modern humans Homo sapiens have also been Social divisions are socially constructed. Until recently, archaeologists believed that the earliest Neolithic farming villages the Yang Shao culture appeared in the Yellow River valley about B. Now a series of newly discovered sites has pushed back the Neolithic Age in China to B.
The evidence indicates that China's Neolithic culture, which cultivated millet and domesticated the pig, originated independently from that in the Near East. The people of China's last Neolithic culture, called Lung Shan, lived in walled towns and produced a wheel-made black pottery.
Their culture spread widely in North China. Most scholars believe that this Neolithic culture immediately preceded the Shang period, when civilization emerged in China about B.
Others now believe that the Hsia Dynasty, considered - like the Shang had been - to be purely legendary, actually existed and flourished for some three centuries before it was conquered by the Shang.
China Enters History With the establishment of Shang rule over most of North China and the appearance of the first written texts, China completed the transition from Neolithic culture to civilization.
Shang originally was the name of a nomadic tribe whose vigorous leaders succeeded in establishing themselves as the overlords of other tribal leaders in North China. The Shang capital, a walled city to which the tribal leaders came to pay tribute, changed frequently; the last capital was at modern Anyang.
The Shang people developed bronze metallurgy and carried it to heights hardly surpassed in world history. Bronze was used to cast elaborate ceremonial and drinking vessels the Shang leaders were notorious for their drinking bouts and weapons, all intricately decorated with both incised and high-relief designs.
Bronze vessels, such as this one from the early tenth century B. Animals were a major motif of ritual bronzes. Courtesy of the Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institutuion, Washington, DC] The Shang people also developed a distinctive writing system employing nearly characters, some of which are still in use today.
These characters represent individual words rather than sounds and consist of pictographs, recognizable as pictures of observable objects, and ideographs representing ideas.
Most Shang writing is found on thousands of "oracle bones," fragments of animal bones and tortoise shells on which were inscribed questions put to the gods and ancestral spirits, which were thought to continue a close relationship with their living descendants as members of the family group.
The diviner would ask such questions as "Will the king's child be a son? Shang China was ruled by hereditary kings who were also priests acting as intermediaries between the people and the spirit world.
Their power was not absolute, being constantly limited by an aristocratic "Council of the Great and Small. Shang kings and nobles lived in imposing buildings, went to battle in horse-drawn chariots resembling those of Homer's Greece, and were buried in sumptuous tombs together with their chariots, still-living servants and war captives.
Warfare was frequent, and the chariot, a new military weapon, facilitated the spread of Shang power through North China. The power of the kings and nobles rested on their ownership of the land, their monopoly of bronze metallurgy, their possession of expensive war chariots, and the kings' religious functions.
Unlike the common people, the kings and nobles had recorded ancestors and belonged to a clan. They were the descendants in the male line from a common ancestor to whom they rendered worship and who was usually a god or a hero, but sometimes a fish, an animal, or a bird.
The chief deity, called God on High, was the ancestor of the king's own clan.
There were regular animal sacrifices and libations of a beerlike liquor were poured on the ground. The object was to win the aid or avoid the displeasure of the spirits.
Magic was employed to maintain the balance of nature, which was thought to function through the interaction of two opposed but complementary forces called yang and yin.A Brief History Of China.
The Asian Way Of Life: CHINA. Author: Robert Guisepi. Date: China: The Formative Centuries. The formative period of Chinese history - the era of the Shang and Chou.
Remember, ethnicity is a social construction too I started thinking of the relationship between ethnic self-identification and the tendency to interpret ethnicity as more “real” than race when, as part of a new research project, I read a transcribed interview of a self-identified Mexican-origin entrepreneur.
Sociology is the scientific study of society, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture of everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about social order, acceptance, and change or social alphabetnyc.com sociologists aim to conduct research that may be applied directly to.
Society is constructed through several social divisions, one of these being divisions being gender. Gender can be defined as a ‘socially determined difference based upon the biological differences between the sexes’ (Marsh et al, ).
A "general statement" "intended to develop a unified conceptual scheme for theory and research in the social sciences" was published by nine USA social scientists in Theory was to be based on a "theory of action" in which "the point of reference of all terms is the action of an individual actor or collective of actors".
Social constructionism is a general term sometimes applied to theories that emphasize the socially created nature of social life.
Of course, in one sense all sociologists would argue this, so the term can easily become devoid of meaning.